Friday, December 13, 2013
When an autonomous cyclic reaction system evolved and maintained within a liquid medium, several other interconnected reaction cycles spontaneously generated using the chemical components participating in the first reaction cycle. Similarly, chemical components participating in the secondary reaction cycles, in turn, initiated more interconnected reaction cycles and, thus, a very complex process of chemical evolution ensued within the liquid matrix in a random fashion.
Reaction cycles, associated with polymerization and de-polymerization of the same or similar precursor molecules were then become as the regulatory center of all other cycles, because the same precursor molecules ware associated and dissociated as necessary to function as a reservoir and provider of the precursor molecules and thereby preventing depletion and termination of the associated cycles. This was also required to maintain balance between all of the associated reaction cycles. As a result, reaction cycles became localized around a center with highest concentration of the precursor molecules linked together in a polymer structure.
At a certain point, in the course of the chemical evolution, huge amount of hydrophobic molecules appeared through one of the associated branch of reaction cycles. Those molecules accumulated in the surrounding liquid medium (water) through hydrophobic interactions (non-polarized hydrocarbon chains in hydrophobic molecules repel water molecules, accumulate together and create hydrophobic barrier). As a result, random, free passage of all chemicals became restricted and all of the reaction cycles became compartmentalized. Such events were extremely useful for the generation of primitive cellular structures.
Hydrophobic molecules accumulate together and create vesicle like structures in which chemical reactions are isolated and free passage of molecules are restricted. Such vesicles create cellular structures and organelles (nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, etc) in cytoplasm where reaction cycles become isolated and compartmentalized.
In such an organization of molecules, reaction cycles became self-regulated depending on the availability of participating chemicals. For example, when huge amount of the hydrophobic molecules were generated and accumulated, the free passage of molecules in the surrounding medium was restricted and the supply of the precursor molecules were reduced. As a result, production of the hydrophobic molecules was slowed down. When production of the hydrophobic molecule was reduced, integrity of the hydrophobic barrier and restriction to the passage of chemicals became weak. As a result, precursor molecules along with all other chemicals readily diffused through the hydrophobic barrier according to their concentration gradients. On the availability of precursor molecules, hydrophobic barrier was further strengthened to restrict the passage of chemicals. Probably, this was the only mechanism to regulate reaction cycles in the primitive forms of biological system because well-organized biological membrane with regulatory proteins was not yet evolved.
Probably, this was the most primitive form of self-regulated biological system with simple organization of hydrophobic molecules appeared through chemical evolution. Next, a complex process of biological evolution ensued that gradually improved the simple organization of molecules into complex unicellular organisms. Finally, more complex multi-cellular organisms appeared through cellular evolution.
However, the cycles of chemical reactions and the steps of chemical evolution could be traced by analyzing all possible reaction steps in water medium involving simple organic compounds. A detailed reaction pathway could be designed with the help of chemical engineers, organic chemists, biochemists and super-computers. Such effort could be useful to explore the detailed mechanism of chemical evolution towards the origin of more complex biological systems. Even, it would be possible to reproduce the same reaction pathways within a suitable liquid matrix in the laboratory condition to observe the course of chemical evolution in the way to the origin of a primitive form of biological system. If the complete process is regulated and controlled externally by manipulating suitable laboratory conditions, primitive form of an artificially designed organism may even be obtained quickly.
This view is, in fact, not contradictory to religions. According to religious doctrine, Adam was sent to the earth, which was already very rich with various types of plant and animal species evolved through the complex process of evolution. None of the religious doctrine denies the process of evolution. Because, the evolution was completely dependent on chemical reactions, the process is not inaccessible to human investigation. Even, it might be possible for us to artificially design the biological body of an organism because dealing with substance is not denied by religious doctrine. Rather, religious statements always encourage us for scientific investigation to uncover the mystery of the creation to realize the power of Almighty. In fact, human intelligence is freely accessible throughout the substantial entities in the physical world but its ability for investigating the abstract and divine entities is limited. Hence, a pious and religious minded person should not be anxious about the superior power of Almighty.
Thursday, November 28, 2013
The life of the universe started with an extremely condensed form of entity undergoing rapid expansion of space with all of its elements. In the course of its expansion, forces of its energy content were directed to all possible dimensions from each point of the expanding universe and the number of dimension increased infinitely along with the expanding periphery. As a result of their interaction, different forms of compound energy evolved with specific characteristics depending on the nature and direction of each participating component. Because each of the energy form was interacting in a rapidly expanding space, several forms of energy converged around a point in a spiral manner, which is still continuous at the present state of the expanding universe.
Spiral nature of galaxies.
However, those points where different forms of compound energy converged, condensed and became confined within space appeared as particulate entities with definite properties depending on the nature of the interacting components. Several forms of particles then became strongly associated with each other to form atoms with different properties depending on the number and nature of interacting particles. Atoms with different properties continue random collision between them in expending dynamic space. As a result of such collision and interaction between same or different atoms, complex forms of molecules are generated depending on the surrounding nature of environment like temperature, pressure, electric charge, mass, gravitational force etc. Finally, accumulation of molecules together appeared as more complex substantial entities in the universe.
Among the three types of substances, appearance of liquid substances (particularly water) in space was most important in the evolutionary point of view. Liquid substances were able to retain the integrity in space in a defined condition where each of the elements (both energy and matter) could interact freely between them within a confined space. However, random interactions within a liquid substance have no significance but a series of reactions with a definite order can represent specific event. When the same series of reaction occurs again and again, the same event repeats within the system. When a series of chemical reactions establish a cyclic order, the representative event becomes permanent within the system. This was the starting point where memory of an event evolved for the first time in the universe within a liquid matrix. Such memories were essential to generate biological system and its evolution into more complex forms of organisms.
[Cyclic events are essential to generate and maintain functional systems in the universe at minute to larger scales. Cyclic movement of electrons around nucleus generates the atomic system. Cyclic reaction pathways in cells are essential to operate living systems. CO2, O2, N2 and H2O cycles keep the environment suitable for living creatures. Circular orbits of planets create the solar system whereas spiral movements of stars construct galactic systems]
Saturday, November 2, 2013
Perhaps, the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe, so far discovered, is the function of human brain. It performs some extraordinary functions that made us the best of the creation. But most of the basic mechanisms of its function are still undiscovered. This is so as experiment with intact living brain is difficult. But we can explain how the brain works by applying our known brain composition and its function at cellular, molecular and ionic level. It is a highly organized biological network that conducts nerve impulses. Probably, it has no other basic function. But how transmission of nerve impulses, allow us to do all of our brain, mind and soul (if exists) activities like learning, memory storage and recall, imagination, decision-making, feelings and perception? How a living substantial body acquires and exhibits some abstract properties which disappear on death, is really amazing. No other substance in the universe has such properties.
Substances have acquired abstract properties through cellular evolution and some noble abstract characteristics appeared in human through the evolution of abstract components in the abstract world (represented by living creatures) along with the organism evolution in the physical world. Evolution in the abstract world continues in human brain with extraordinary functions. The basic prerequisite for an evolution towards excellence is to conserve the acquisition of the past achievements which is efficiently performed by human brain that not only stores past events and experiences but also recalls, analyzes, manipulates and delivers a response as required after sensing the state of the surrounding environment. Therefore, memory conservation in human brain is the most significant achievement in the course of the evolution of the universe. Now, let’s see how the biological memory evolved through the evolution.